#pragma once vs. #ifndef/#define

After getting in an extended discussion about the supposed performance tradeoff between #pragma once and #ifndef guards vs. the argument of correctness or not (I was taking the side of #pragma once based on some relatively recent indoctrination to that end), I decided to finally test the theory that #pragma once is faster because the compiler doesn’t have to try to re-#include a file that had already been included.

For the test, I automatically generated 500 header files with complex interdependencies, and had a .c file that #includes them all. I ran the test three ways, once with just #ifndef, once with just #pragma once, and once with both. I performed the test on a fairly modern system (a 2014 MacBook Pro running OSX, using XCode’s bundled Clang, with the internal SSD).